First Aid Techniques
   
At the Emergency Scene
Action in An Emergency
Assessing a Casualty
Maintaining Airway,
Breathing, and Circulation
What to do When Somebody has Collapsed
The recovery Position for
Adults
The recovery Position for
Children and Babies
Rescue Breathing for Adults
Rescue Breathing for
Children and Babies
CPR for Adults
CPR for Children and Babies
Choking in Adults
Choking in Children
Choking in Babies
   
 
Everyday First Aid
   
Nosebleeds
Minor Wounds
Infected Wounds
Dealing with Splinters and
Fish Hooks
Foreign Bodies
Animal Bites
Insect Bites and Stings
More on Bites and Stings
Headaches
Fever
Earaches, Toothache, and
Sore Throat
Abdominal Pain
Vomiting and Diarrhea
Cramps
Hysteria, Hiccups, and Panic
Attacks
Allergies
   
 
Equipment, Medicines, and Complementary Medicine
   
Using Dressings and Cold
Compresses
Bandaging
First Aid Kit for the Home
First Aid Kit for the Car
Wilderness First Aid Kit
Observation Chart/Victim
Record
Storing and Using Medication
Commonly Prescribed
Drugs:
What They Do and Side
Effects
Drug Interactions
The Complementary
Medicine Chest
   
 
 
 
 
CPR for Adults

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) combines rescue breathing with chest compressions to circulate oxygen around the body while waiting for further emergency help.

CPR does not normally restart a person’s heart but when it is combined with early emergency help, early defibrillation (whereby a brief electric shock is given to the heart), and early advanced hospital care, it has saved many lives. Ribs may be broken during CPR but this is preferable to dying.

GIVING CPR

After providing the initial rescue breathing, you need to check the circulation to see if the heart is effectively pumping blood, and therefore oxygen, around the body. Look, listen, and feel for breathing, coughing, movement, normal color or any other sign of life for not more than 10 seconds. If there are no signs of circulation, or you are at all unsure, start chest compressions. These must be given with the victim lying on his back on a firm surface.

ABC OR RESUSCITATION

Airway Use head tilt and chin lift to keep the airway open while provide rescue breathing.

Breathing Provide rescue breathing to somebody who is not breathing.

Circulation Check for signs of circulation and combine rescue breathing with chest compressions if you think the heart has stopped beating.

CHEST COMPRESSIONS

1. With your lower hand, locate one of the bottom ribs. Slide the fingers of one hand along the rib to the point where the rib meets the breastbone. Place one finger at this point and the finger next to it above it on the breastbone. Place the heel of your other hand on the breastbone and slide it down until it reaches your index finger. This is the point at which you should apply pressure.

2. Place the heel of your first hand on top of the other hand and interlock your fingers. Lean well over the victim and, with your arms straight, press down vertically and depress the breastbone one-third of the depth of the chest, which on an adult is 1 - 2 inches.

3. Release the pressure without losing contact between your hands and the breastbone. Compress the chest 15 times, at a rate of 100 compressions per minute. Compression and release should take an equal amount of time.

COMBINING CHEST COMPRESSIONS WITH RESCUE BREATHS

Chest compressions circulate blood to the vital organs such as the brain. To ensure that this blood contains oxygen, you need to combine chest compressions with rescue breaths.

After 15 compressions, tilt the head, lift the chin, and give 2 effective breaths. Continue until:

• Emergency help arrives.
• The victim shows signs of circulation.
• You become so exhausted you cannot carry on.

IF THE VICTIM VOMITS

The combination of being unconscious with no muscle tone to hold in the stomach contents, air possibly being blown into the stomach through rescue breathing, and compressing the chest may result in the victim being sick. He or she will often have lost the reflex that causes gagging so the vomit may stay at the back of the throat or come into the mouth. This must be cleared promptly:

• Roll the person toward you, supporting the head.
• Open the mouth and sweep out any vomit with two fingers.
• Turn the person onto his back and start the ABC process again.

You may wish to use a face shield when providing rescue breathing, but not having one should not stop you performing CPR. You can also give breaths through a handkerchief.

 
 
 
Vomiting and Diarrhea

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First Aid Procedures
   
Drowning
Shock
Breathing Difficulties
Asthma
Anaphylactic Shock
Heart Problems
Stroke
Epilepsy
Unconsciousness
Diabetes
Bleeding
Treatment of External Bleeding
Bleeding from the Head or
Palm
Treating Chest or Abdominal
Wounds
Crush Injuries, Impalement,
and Amputation
Internal Bleeding
Eye Wounds and Embedded
Objects
Bleeding from Special Sites
Controlling Bleeding from the Mouth and Nose
Fractures, Discolorations, and
Soft Tissue Injuries
How to Treat Fractures
Fractures of the Skull, Face,
and Jaw
Concussion
Fractures of the Upper Body
Fractures of the Arm and Hand
Fractures of the Ribcage
Recognizing Back and Spinal
Injury
If you have to move the Victim
Unconscious Victim
Injuries to the Lower Body
Injuries to the Lower Leg
Sprains and Strains
Burns and Scalds
Treating Other Types of Burn
Chemical Burns and Eye Burns
Extreme Cold
Extreme Heat
Poisoning
Poisoning from Household
Chemicals
Poisoning from Industrial
Chemicals
Drug Poisoning
Alcohol Poisoning
Food Poisoning
Miscarriage
Emergency Childbirth
   
 
Wilderness First Aid
   
What to Do if You are a Long Way from Help
Wilderness First Aid
Avalanche and Snow Survival Techniques
Cold Water Survival
Techniques
Stretcher Improvising
Loading and Carrying a
Stretcher
One-and-Two-Person Carries
Helicopter Rescue