First Aid Techniques
   
At the Emergency Scene
Action in An Emergency
Assessing a Casualty
Maintaining Airway,
Breathing, and Circulation
What to do When Somebody has Collapsed
The recovery Position for
Adults
The recovery Position for
Children and Babies
Rescue Breathing for Adults
Rescue Breathing for
Children and Babies
CPR for Adults
CPR for Children and Babies
Choking in Adults
Choking in Children
Choking in Babies
   
 
Everyday First Aid
   
Nosebleeds
Minor Wounds
Infected Wounds
Dealing with Splinters and
Fish Hooks
Foreign Bodies
Animal Bites
Insect Bites and Stings
More on Bites and Stings
Headaches
Fever
Earaches, Toothache, and
Sore Throat
Abdominal Pain
Vomiting and Diarrhea
Cramps
Hysteria, Hiccups, and Panic
Attacks
Allergies
   
 
Equipment, Medicines, and Complementary Medicine
   
Using Dressings and Cold
Compresses
Bandaging
First Aid Kit for the Home
First Aid Kit for the Car
Wilderness First Aid Kit
Observation Chart/Victim
Record
Storing and Using Medication
Commonly Prescribed
Drugs:
What They Do and Side
Effects
Drug Interactions
The Complementary
Medicine Chest
   
 
 
 
 
Assessing a Casualty

Prompt action during an emergency could mean the difference between life and death. The following article describes how to assess a victims’ airway and breathing.

CHECK THE RESPONSE


If faced with a person who appears to be unresponsive, check the response by gently shaking the shoulders and asking loudly, “Are you all right?” Speak loudly and clearly and squeeze gently because there may be a neck injury.

OPEN THE AIRWAY


1. Place one hand on the forehead and gently tilt the head back. Open the victim’s mouth and remove any obvious obstructions, including dislodged dentures, but leave well-fitting dentures in place.

2. Place the fingertips of the other hand under the point of the victims’ chin and lift the chin. If injury to the neck is suspected, handle the head very gently and try to avoid tilting the head.

IF THERE IS NO RESPONSE
 

Shout for help. If possible, leave the victim in the position in which you found him and open the airway. When it is not possible to carry out an assessment of the victim in the position found, turn the person onto his back and open the airway.

Apply the same techniques for a child as for an adult. For a baby, use only one finger under the chin and be very careful not to over-extend the neck when tilting the head back.

CHECK FOR BREATHING
 

Keep the airway open and look, listen, and feel for breathing for no more than 10 seconds.

• Look for the chest movement.
• Listen for sounds of breathing.
• Feel the breath on your cheek

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF A NON-BREATHING CASUALTY

• Unconsciousness, stillness.
• Pale skin with possible blue lips.
• No movement of the chest.
• No feeling or sound of breathing.

Assessing a baby or toddler


If the victim is a toddler or a baby, it is important to handle them with care. Roll the baby gently onto its back with one hand, making sure you cradle the head with the other.

To open the airway, place only one finger under the chin and tilt the head back slowly. Do not tip the head back too far as this may cause damage to the neck. Once you are sure the airway is clear, check for breathing for no more than 10 seconds.

OPENING AIRWAY AND CHECKING BREATHING

DO

• Check to see if the victim is conscious.
• Open the airway by gently lifting the chin, checking in the mouth, and tilting the head.
• Check breathing for 10 seconds.

DO NOT

• Sweep blindly in the mouth for obstructions.
 
 
 
Assessing a Casualty

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First Aid Procedures
   
Drowning
Shock
Breathing Difficulties
Asthma
Anaphylactic Shock
Heart Problems
Stroke
Epilepsy
Unconsciousness
Diabetes
Bleeding
Treatment of External Bleeding
Bleeding from the Head or
Palm
Treating Chest or Abdominal
Wounds
Crush Injuries, Impalement,
and Amputation
Internal Bleeding
Eye Wounds and Embedded
Objects
Bleeding from Special Sites
Controlling Bleeding from the Mouth and Nose
Fractures, Discolorations, and
Soft Tissue Injuries
How to Treat Fractures
Fractures of the Skull, Face,
and Jaw
Concussion
Fractures of the Upper Body
Fractures of the Arm and Hand
Fractures of the Ribcage
Recognizing Back and Spinal
Injury
If you have to move the Victim
Unconscious Victim
Injuries to the Lower Body
Injuries to the Lower Leg
Sprains and Strains
Burns and Scalds
Treating Other Types of Burn
Chemical Burns and Eye Burns
Extreme Cold
Extreme Heat
Poisoning
Poisoning from Household
Chemicals
Poisoning from Industrial
Chemicals
Drug Poisoning
Alcohol Poisoning
Food Poisoning
Miscarriage
Emergency Childbirth
   
 
Wilderness First Aid
   
What to Do if You are a Long Way from Help
Wilderness First Aid
Avalanche and Snow Survival Techniques
Cold Water Survival
Techniques
Stretcher Improvising
Loading and Carrying a
Stretcher
One-and-Two-Person Carries
Helicopter Rescue