First Aid Techniques
   
At the Emergency Scene
Action in An Emergency
Assessing a Casualty
Maintaining Airway,
Breathing, and Circulation
What to do When Somebody has Collapsed
The recovery Position for
Adults
The recovery Position for
Children and Babies
Rescue Breathing for Adults
Rescue Breathing for
Children and Babies
CPR for Adults
CPR for Children and Babies
Choking in Adults
Choking in Children
Choking in Babies
   
 
Everyday First Aid
   
Nosebleeds
Minor Wounds
Infected Wounds
Dealing with Splinters and
Fish Hooks
Foreign Bodies
Animal Bites
Insect Bites and Stings
More on Bites and Stings
Headaches
Fever
Earaches, Toothache, and
Sore Throat
Abdominal Pain
Vomiting and Diarrhea
Cramps
Hysteria, Hiccups, and Panic
Attacks
Allergies
   
 
Equipment, Medicines, and Complementary Medicine
   
Using Dressings and Cold
Compresses
Bandaging
First Aid Kit for the Home
First Aid Kit for the Car
Wilderness First Aid Kit
Observation Chart/Victim
Record
Storing and Using Medication
Commonly Prescribed
Drugs:
What They Do and Side
Effects
Drug Interactions
The Complementary
Medicine Chest
   
 
 
 
 
Treating Chest or Abdominal Wounds

The chest wall protects the lungs, heart, and other essential organs such as the liver. A puncture wound to the chest can therefore be extremely serious. Wounds to the abdomen (stomach and intestines) are very serious. External bleeding may be severe and internal bleeding is likely, both of which will lead to serious shock. In addition, there may be damage to internal organs and the digestive system.

CHEST WOUNDS

Common complications of penetrating chest wounds include:

  • Collapsed lung (pneumothorax), caused by air entering the space between the chest wall and the lungs. This applies pressure to the lungs, causing them to collapse. The lung can also be damaged directly, causing it to fill with blood.

  • Tension pneumothorax which occurs when the pressure builds up sufficiently to affect the uninjured lung and possibly even the heart.

  • Damage to the vital organs such as the liver—this will result in severe shock as these organs have a large blood supply.

TREATMENT

  1. Seal the wound using, in the first instance, your hand or the victim’s hand.

  2. Help the victim into a position that makes it easier for him to breathe. This will usually be sitting up and inclined to the injured side. This allows the uninjured lung maximum room to move and allows blood to pool on the injured side.

  3. Cover the wound with a dressing and cover the dressing with airtight material, such as plastic or foil. Seal this on three sides.

  4. Call an ambulance and treat for shock.

If the victim is unconscious, monitor and maintain the airway, and be prepared to resuscitate if necessary (sealing the wound before resuscitating). Place the victim injured side down.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF CHEST WOUNDS

  • Difficulty with breathing

  • Shock
  • Bright red, frothy blood (blood with air in it) being coughed up or escaping from the wound.

  • Pale skin with blue lips

  • Sound of air being sucked into the chest

TREATING ABDOMINAL WOUNDS

  1. Call an ambulance and help the victim to lie down in the most comfortable position.

  2. Consider the position of the wound. If it is vertical—runs down the abdomen—moving the victim so that he is lying flat on the ground will help bring the edges together, ease discomfort, and help reduce bleeding. If the wound is horizontal, gently raising the legs will have the same effect.

  3. Place a large dressing over the wound and secure in place. Add pads to this dressing as necessary.

  4. Treat for shock.

Support the wound if the victim coughs, vomits, or needs to be moved into the recovery position. Press lightly on the bandage to prevent intestines protruding, do not attempt to replace them. Cover with a clean piece of plastic film.

MAJOR ORGANS

Damage to any of the body’s major organs can be life-threatening and prompt action must therefore be taken to minimize the effects of injuries to the chest or abdomen. Even when external bleeding is slight, the risk of internal bleeding cannot be discounted. Knowing where in the body the organs are located will help first responder to assess a situation and decide the most appropriate emergency treatment, and also to give accurate information when the emergency services arrive.
 
 
 
Vomiting and Diarrhea

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First Aid Procedures
   
Drowning
Shock
Breathing Difficulties
Asthma
Anaphylactic Shock
Heart Problems
Stroke
Epilepsy
Unconsciousness
Diabetes
Bleeding
Treatment of External Bleeding
Bleeding from the Head or
Palm
Treating Chest or Abdominal
Wounds
Crush Injuries, Impalement,
and Amputation
Internal Bleeding
Eye Wounds and Embedded
Objects
Bleeding from Special Sites
Controlling Bleeding from the Mouth and Nose
Fractures, Discolorations, and
Soft Tissue Injuries
How to Treat Fractures
Fractures of the Skull, Face,
and Jaw
Concussion
Fractures of the Upper Body
Fractures of the Arm and Hand
Fractures of the Ribcage
Recognizing Back and Spinal
Injury
If you have to move the Victim
Unconscious Victim
Injuries to the Lower Body
Injuries to the Lower Leg
Sprains and Strains
Burns and Scalds
Treating Other Types of Burn
Chemical Burns and Eye Burns
Extreme Cold
Extreme Heat
Poisoning
Poisoning from Household
Chemicals
Poisoning from Industrial
Chemicals
Drug Poisoning
Alcohol Poisoning
Food Poisoning
Miscarriage
Emergency Childbirth
   
 
Wilderness First Aid
   
What to Do if You are a Long Way from Help
Wilderness First Aid
Avalanche and Snow Survival Techniques
Cold Water Survival
Techniques
Stretcher Improvising
Loading and Carrying a
Stretcher
One-and-Two-Person Carries
Helicopter Rescue