First Aid Techniques
   
At the Emergency Scene
Action in An Emergency
Assessing a Casualty
Maintaining Airway,
Breathing, and Circulation
What to do When Somebody has Collapsed
The recovery Position for
Adults
The recovery Position for
Children and Babies
Rescue Breathing for Adults
Rescue Breathing for
Children and Babies
CPR for Adults
CPR for Children and Babies
Choking in Adults
Choking in Children
Choking in Babies
   
 
Everyday First Aid
   
Nosebleeds
Minor Wounds
Infected Wounds
Dealing with Splinters and
Fish Hooks
Foreign Bodies
Animal Bites
Insect Bites and Stings
More on Bites and Stings
Headaches
Fever
Earaches, Toothache, and
Sore Throat
Abdominal Pain
Vomiting and Diarrhea
Cramps
Hysteria, Hiccups, and Panic
Attacks
Allergies
   
 
Equipment, Medicines, and Complementary Medicine
   
Using Dressings and Cold
Compresses
Bandaging
First Aid Kit for the Home
First Aid Kit for the Car
Wilderness First Aid Kit
Observation Chart/Victim
Record
Storing and Using Medication
Commonly Prescribed
Drugs:
What They Do and Side
Effects
Drug Interactions
The Complementary
Medicine Chest
   
 
 
 
 
Stroke

A stroke occurs when a blood clot or bleeding cuts off the blood supply, and therefore the oxygen, to the part of the brain. The affected area of the brain will eventually die. The effect of a stroke depends on how much of the brain is affected and where the clot or bleeding is. Different parts of the brain control different functions, so a clot in the part of the brain that controls speech, for example, will result in slurred or confused speech. Often the signs will be confined to one side of the body.

EFFECTS OF THE STROKE


If the bleeding or clot is in one of the larger blood vessels supplying a large area of the brain, then the stroke will often be immediately fatal. However, many people do survive, with some making a full recovery. Others may need extensive periods of rehabilitation and support to manage stroke-related problems such as reduced mobility.

Below

If a person has had a stroke and is still conscious, help her to lie down with her head and shoulders raised. Speak in a reassuring voice and seek medical help.

Left

Simple tests can be performed at home to assess whether or not a person has suffered a minor stroke. A minor stroke may cause weakness on one side of the body or loss of sensation.

TREATMENT

Monitor airway and breathing and be prepared to resuscitate if necessary. Place the person in the recovery position if she becomes unconscious. If she is conscious, help her lie down with the head and shoulders slightly raised. Provide support and reassurance. The person will often be disoriented and may be speaking nonsense if the speech center is affected. Equally, she may hear what you are saying but not understand it. Speak in a reassuring tone with confidence. Call an ambulance. Wipe any dribbling away from the side of the face and prepared for the person to vomit.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

Any combination of the following may be present. In minor stokes, the signs and symptoms may be very limited.

  • History- the sufferer may have a history of smaller strokes over previous years, or may have been feeling unwell for some days with no known cause

  • Headache

  • Blurred vision, partial loss of sight, or seeing flashing lights

  • Confusion and disorientation, often mistaken for drunkenness

  • Signs of paralysis or weakness, often only down one side of the body (confirm by asking the patient to hold out both arms in front of her and look drooping or shaking)

  • Difficulty speaking; drooping mouth or smile (caused by minor paralysis)

  • Dribbling from one side of the mouth

  • Loss of consciousness (this can be gradual or sudden)

  • Sometimes the pulse will be full and throbbing, the person’s breathing noisy, and the skin flushed
 
 
 
Vomiting and Diarrhea

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First Aid Procedures
   
Drowning
Shock
Breathing Difficulties
Asthma
Anaphylactic Shock
Heart Problems
Stroke
Epilepsy
Unconsciousness
Diabetes
Bleeding
Treatment of External Bleeding
Bleeding from the Head or
Palm
Treating Chest or Abdominal
Wounds
Crush Injuries, Impalement,
and Amputation
Internal Bleeding
Eye Wounds and Embedded
Objects
Bleeding from Special Sites
Controlling Bleeding from the Mouth and Nose
Fractures, Discolorations, and
Soft Tissue Injuries
How to Treat Fractures
Fractures of the Skull, Face,
and Jaw
Concussion
Fractures of the Upper Body
Fractures of the Arm and Hand
Fractures of the Ribcage
Recognizing Back and Spinal
Injury
If you have to move the Victim
Unconscious Victim
Injuries to the Lower Body
Injuries to the Lower Leg
Sprains and Strains
Burns and Scalds
Treating Other Types of Burn
Chemical Burns and Eye Burns
Extreme Cold
Extreme Heat
Poisoning
Poisoning from Household
Chemicals
Poisoning from Industrial
Chemicals
Drug Poisoning
Alcohol Poisoning
Food Poisoning
Miscarriage
Emergency Childbirth
   
 
Wilderness First Aid
   
What to Do if You are a Long Way from Help
Wilderness First Aid
Avalanche and Snow Survival Techniques
Cold Water Survival
Techniques
Stretcher Improvising
Loading and Carrying a
Stretcher
One-and-Two-Person Carries
Helicopter Rescue