First Aid Techniques
   
At the Emergency Scene
Action in An Emergency
Assessing a Casualty
Maintaining Airway,
Breathing, and Circulation
What to do When Somebody has Collapsed
The recovery Position for
Adults
The recovery Position for
Children and Babies
Rescue Breathing for Adults
Rescue Breathing for
Children and Babies
CPR for Adults
CPR for Children and Babies
Choking in Adults
Choking in Children
Choking in Babies
   
 
Everyday First Aid
   
Nosebleeds
Minor Wounds
Infected Wounds
Dealing with Splinters and
Fish Hooks
Foreign Bodies
Animal Bites
Insect Bites and Stings
More on Bites and Stings
Headaches
Fever
Earaches, Toothache, and
Sore Throat
Abdominal Pain
Vomiting and Diarrhea
Cramps
Hysteria, Hiccups, and Panic
Attacks
Allergies
   
 
Equipment, Medicines, and Complementary Medicine
   
Using Dressings and Cold
Compresses
Bandaging
First Aid Kit for the Home
First Aid Kit for the Car
Wilderness First Aid Kit
Observation Chart/Victim
Record
Storing and Using Medication
Commonly Prescribed
Drugs:
What They Do and Side
Effects
Drug Interactions
The Complementary
Medicine Chest
   
 
 
 
 
Shock

The word shock can be used in a range ways, but when used in a first aid context it describes a physical condition that results from a loss of circulating body fluid. It should not be confused with emotional shock that might occur when a person has received bad news (although the external signs are very similar).

SHOCKWHAT HAPPENS IN CASES OF SHOCK

A severe loss of body fluid will lead to a drop in blood pressure. Eventually the blood’s circulation will deteriorate and the remaining blood flow will be directed to the vital organs such as the brain. Blood will therefore be directed away from the outer area of the body, so the victim will appear pale and the skin will feel cold and clammy.

As blood flow slows, so does the amount of oxygen reaching the brain. The victim may appear to be confused, weak, and dizzy, and may eventually deteriorate into unconsciousness. To try to compensate for this lack of oxygen, the heart and breathing rates both speed up, gradually becoming weaker, and may eventually cease.

Potential causes of shock include: sever internal or external bleeding; burns; severe vomiting and diarrhea, especially in children and the elderly; problems with the heart.

TREATMENT

• Warmth
• Air
• Rest
• Mental rest
• Treatment
• Help

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

• Pale, cold, and clammy skin
• Fast, weak pulse
• Fast, shallow breathing
• Dizziness and weakness
• Confusion
• Unconsciousness
• Breathing and heartbeat stopping

Shock kills, so it is vital that you can recognize these signs and symptoms. With internal bleeding in particular, shock can occur some time after an accident, so if a person with a history of injury starts to display these symptoms coupled with any of the symptoms of internal bleeding, advise her to seek urgent medical attention. Or take or send her to hospital.

Warmth

Keep the victim warm but do not allow her to get overheated. If you are outside, try to get something underneath her if you can do easily. Wrap blankets and coats around her, paying particular attention to the head, through which much body heat is lost.

Air

Maintain careful eye on the victim’s airway and be prepared to turn her into the recovery position if necessary, or even to resuscitate if breathing stops. Try to keep back bystanders and loosen tight clothing to allow maximum air to victim.

Rest

Keep the victim still and preferably sitting or lying down. If the victim is very giddy, lay her down with her legs raised to ensure that maximum blood and therefore maximum oxygen is sent to the brain.

Mental rest
Mental rest

Reassure the victim but keep your comments realistic. Do not say that everything is going to be fine when it is obvious that here is something seriously wrong. Let the victim know that everything that can be done is being done and that help has been called for. If she has other concerns, try to resolve these.

Treatment

Treat the cause of the shock and aim to prevent further fluid loss.

Help

Ensure that appropriate medical help is on the way.

 
 
 
Vomiting and Diarrhea

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First Aid Procedures
   
Drowning
Shock
Breathing Difficulties
Asthma
Anaphylactic Shock
Heart Problems
Stroke
Epilepsy
Unconsciousness
Diabetes
Bleeding
Treatment of External Bleeding
Bleeding from the Head or
Palm
Treating Chest or Abdominal
Wounds
Crush Injuries, Impalement,
and Amputation
Internal Bleeding
Eye Wounds and Embedded
Objects
Bleeding from Special Sites
Controlling Bleeding from the Mouth and Nose
Fractures, Discolorations, and
Soft Tissue Injuries
How to Treat Fractures
Fractures of the Skull, Face,
and Jaw
Concussion
Fractures of the Upper Body
Fractures of the Arm and Hand
Fractures of the Ribcage
Recognizing Back and Spinal
Injury
If you have to move the Victim
Unconscious Victim
Injuries to the Lower Body
Injuries to the Lower Leg
Sprains and Strains
Burns and Scalds
Treating Other Types of Burn
Chemical Burns and Eye Burns
Extreme Cold
Extreme Heat
Poisoning
Poisoning from Household
Chemicals
Poisoning from Industrial
Chemicals
Drug Poisoning
Alcohol Poisoning
Food Poisoning
Miscarriage
Emergency Childbirth
   
 
Wilderness First Aid
   
What to Do if You are a Long Way from Help
Wilderness First Aid
Avalanche and Snow Survival Techniques
Cold Water Survival
Techniques
Stretcher Improvising
Loading and Carrying a
Stretcher
One-and-Two-Person Carries
Helicopter Rescue