First Aid Techniques
   
At the Emergency Scene
Action in An Emergency
Assessing a Casualty
Maintaining Airway,
Breathing, and Circulation
What to do When Somebody has Collapsed
The recovery Position for
Adults
The recovery Position for
Children and Babies
Rescue Breathing for Adults
Rescue Breathing for
Children and Babies
CPR for Adults
CPR for Children and Babies
Choking in Adults
Choking in Children
Choking in Babies
   
 
Everyday First Aid
   
Nosebleeds
Minor Wounds
Infected Wounds
Dealing with Splinters and
Fish Hooks
Foreign Bodies
Animal Bites
Insect Bites and Stings
More on Bites and Stings
Headaches
Fever
Earaches, Toothache, and
Sore Throat
Abdominal Pain
Vomiting and Diarrhea
Cramps
Hysteria, Hiccups, and Panic
Attacks
Allergies
   
 
Equipment, Medicines, and Complementary Medicine
   
Using Dressings and Cold
Compresses
Bandaging
First Aid Kit for the Home
First Aid Kit for the Car
Wilderness First Aid Kit
Observation Chart/Victim
Record
Storing and Using Medication
Commonly Prescribed
Drugs:
What They Do and Side
Effects
Drug Interactions
The Complementary
Medicine Chest
   
 
 
 
 
Poisoning

A poison is any substance that enters the body and causes temporary or permanent harm. Some substances, such as acetaminophen or alcohol, only become harmful to the body when taken in a large quantity. Others, such as some herbicides, need only to be taken in very small amounts to be harmful.

HOW DO POISONS AFFECT THE BODY?

Different poisons have different effects. The effect is modified by the quantity and the time since exposure.

POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF POISONS

Vomiting

This is common response to many poisons, particularly those that have been eaten, as body tries to remove the poison from the system.

Impaired consciousness

A person may be confused and slowly lapse into full unconsciousness.

Breathing difficulties

Poison may eventually cause breathing to stop.

Change in heart rate

Some poisons speed up the heart rate; others slow it down. Poisons may eventually cause the heart to stop.

Erratic and confused behavior

Always suspect poisoning in these instances.

Burns

Some poisons burn the skin, some swallowed poisons burn the digestive tract, bringing the additional risk of swelling around the mouth and throat.

Pain

Some poisons will cause pain.

Liver and kidney problems

As the liver and kidneys struggle to remove poisons from the body they may become affected themselves.

KEY FIRST AID PRINCIPLES FOR DEALING WITH POISONS

  1. Protect yourself and bystanders from the source of the poison by making the scene safe and wearing protective clothing if necessary.

  2. Monitor and maintain the victim’s airway and breathing and be prepared to resuscitate if necessary.

  3. Seek appropriate medical help or call the Poison Control Hotline to deal with dangerous substances.

  4. Monitor the victim’s level of consciousness and be prepared to turn into the recovery position if necessary.

  5. Support the victim if he vomits and place in the recovery position until medical help arrives.

  6. Treat any burns caused by corrosive poisons by flooding the affected area with running water.

  7. Try to identify the source of poison because this will help determine appropriate medical treatment.

CLUES TO IDENTIFYING POISONS

The early identification of a poison will help medical staff to determine an appropriate course of treatment. Potential clues that you as the first person at the scene of the incident may be able to provide include:

  • Medicine bottles/pill containers (do not assume that an empty bottle means that all the pills were taken).

  • Samples of vomit: if the victim is sick, keep the vomit for inspection.

  • Details of what happened from bystanders or from the victim.

  • Identification of animal or insect: if the poisoning route was a bite, try to get a description of the creature. If it is safe to do so, take the poisonous animal or insect to hospital.
Chemical containers: be able to describe any HAZMAT symbol or label if you can get close enough to do so without putting yourself at risk. Do not touch these yourself. Remember that many household substances are toxic.
 
 
 
Vomiting and Diarrhea

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First Aid Procedures
   
Drowning
Shock
Breathing Difficulties
Asthma
Anaphylactic Shock
Heart Problems
Stroke
Epilepsy
Unconsciousness
Diabetes
Bleeding
Treatment of External Bleeding
Bleeding from the Head or
Palm
Treating Chest or Abdominal
Wounds
Crush Injuries, Impalement,
and Amputation
Internal Bleeding
Eye Wounds and Embedded
Objects
Bleeding from Special Sites
Controlling Bleeding from the Mouth and Nose
Fractures, Discolorations, and
Soft Tissue Injuries
How to Treat Fractures
Fractures of the Skull, Face,
and Jaw
Concussion
Fractures of the Upper Body
Fractures of the Arm and Hand
Fractures of the Ribcage
Recognizing Back and Spinal
Injury
If you have to move the Victim
Unconscious Victim
Injuries to the Lower Body
Injuries to the Lower Leg
Sprains and Strains
Burns and Scalds
Treating Other Types of Burn
Chemical Burns and Eye Burns
Extreme Cold
Extreme Heat
Poisoning
Poisoning from Household
Chemicals
Poisoning from Industrial
Chemicals
Drug Poisoning
Alcohol Poisoning
Food Poisoning
Miscarriage
Emergency Childbirth
   
 
Wilderness First Aid
   
What to Do if You are a Long Way from Help
Wilderness First Aid
Avalanche and Snow Survival Techniques
Cold Water Survival
Techniques
Stretcher Improvising
Loading and Carrying a
Stretcher
One-and-Two-Person Carries
Helicopter Rescue