First Aid Techniques
   
At the Emergency Scene
Action in An Emergency
Assessing a Casualty
Maintaining Airway,
Breathing, and Circulation
What to do When Somebody has Collapsed
The recovery Position for
Adults
The recovery Position for
Children and Babies
Rescue Breathing for Adults
Rescue Breathing for
Children and Babies
CPR for Adults
CPR for Children and Babies
Choking in Adults
Choking in Children
Choking in Babies
   
 
Everyday First Aid
   
Nosebleeds
Minor Wounds
Infected Wounds
Dealing with Splinters and
Fish Hooks
Foreign Bodies
Animal Bites
Insect Bites and Stings
More on Bites and Stings
Headaches
Fever
Earaches, Toothache, and
Sore Throat
Abdominal Pain
Vomiting and Diarrhea
Cramps
Hysteria, Hiccups, and Panic
Attacks
Allergies
   
 
Equipment, Medicines, and Complementary Medicine
   
Using Dressings and Cold
Compresses
Bandaging
First Aid Kit for the Home
First Aid Kit for the Car
Wilderness First Aid Kit
Observation Chart/Victim
Record
Storing and Using Medication
Commonly Prescribed
Drugs:
What They Do and Side
Effects
Drug Interactions
The Complementary
Medicine Chest
   
 
 
 
 
Fractures of the Arm and Hand

There are three long bones in each arm—one in the upper arm and two below the elbow. These are among the most commonly broken bone sin the body. There is also a number of small bones in the wrist that are vulnerable to breaks. Fractures to the hand or fingers can be extremely painful because of the may nerve endings.

The principles of treatment are, as for all broken bones, to provide support to the injured part and to stop it from moving too much. Most people with broken arm will be able to make their own way to the hospital or a health center, so treatment focuses on providing that is appropriate when walking and stabilizes the injured limb. This can be done with an improvised sling using clothing, or by using a triangular bandage to form an arm sling.

HOW TO MAKE AN ARM SLING

  1. Gently place the bandage under the victim’s arm, placing the point underneath the elbow.

  2. Pass the top end of the bandage around the back of the victim’s neck, leaving a short end to be tied by the collarbone on the injured side.

  3. Bring the bottom end of the bandage carefully, ensuring that it fully supports the injured arm. Tie into place with a square knot or bow.

  4. For additional support, you can tie another triangular bandage. Fold into three (a broad fold) around the arm, avoiding the site of the fracture, to stop the arm from moving.

BROKEN ELBOW OR AN ARM THAT CANNOT BEND

If the broken bone is on or near the elbow it may not be possible for the person to bend the arm, either because of the pain or because the joint is fixed. In this case you need to treat the arm in the position found—do not try to bend the arm.

  1. Help the victim into the most comfortable position; this will often be lying down on the ground, but it may also be standing up with the arm hanging straight down.

  2. Place padding around the injured part, both between the arm and the body and on the outside of the arm.

  3. The victim will need to be transported by an ambulance. Do not attempt to bandage the arm if help is on its way because this will cause further discomfort and may make the injury worse.

FRACTURED WRIST

In older adults, the wrist may be broken by a fall onto an outstretched hand, causing a break a very low down on the radius (one of the long bones in the lower arm) known as a Coleus's or silver fork fracture. Other injuries can break one of the small bones to the wrist or cause a sprain that is particularly difficult to distinguish from break.

TREATMENT

Provide support and immobilization in the same way as for a break to the upper or lower arm. Remove watches and bracelets because these may contribute to cutting off circulation to the hand if the injury swells.


HAND FRACTURE

Direct impact may break one or two of the small bones in the palm or fingers. Crushing injuries may break several bones and cause considerable bleeding. In addition the thumb, and even some of the fingers, may become dislocated.

TREATMENT

  1. Gently cover any open wounds with a dressing or clean, non-fluffy piece of material. Encourage the victim to raise her arm. This helps to reduce swelling and bleeding and also provides some pain relief.

  2. If possible, remove rings and wrist-watches before injury starts to swell. If jewellery has been crushed into the hand or swelling prevents its easy removal, pass this information on as soon as possible to the medical staff as early treatment will be needed to prevent damage to the circulation in the fingers.
Cover the injured area with a pad of soft fabric or cotton wool (taking particular care if there are open wounds no to get strands of material stuck into the injury). This padding can be held in place with a cover created from a triangular bandage, which can also be adapted for crush injuries to the foot and for burns to the hand and foot.
 
 
 
Vomiting and Diarrhea

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First Aid Procedures
   
Drowning
Shock
Breathing Difficulties
Asthma
Anaphylactic Shock
Heart Problems
Stroke
Epilepsy
Unconsciousness
Diabetes
Bleeding
Treatment of External Bleeding
Bleeding from the Head or
Palm
Treating Chest or Abdominal
Wounds
Crush Injuries, Impalement,
and Amputation
Internal Bleeding
Eye Wounds and Embedded
Objects
Bleeding from Special Sites
Controlling Bleeding from the Mouth and Nose
Fractures, Discolorations, and
Soft Tissue Injuries
How to Treat Fractures
Fractures of the Skull, Face,
and Jaw
Concussion
Fractures of the Upper Body
Fractures of the Arm and Hand
Fractures of the Ribcage
Recognizing Back and Spinal
Injury
If you have to move the Victim
Unconscious Victim
Injuries to the Lower Body
Injuries to the Lower Leg
Sprains and Strains
Burns and Scalds
Treating Other Types of Burn
Chemical Burns and Eye Burns
Extreme Cold
Extreme Heat
Poisoning
Poisoning from Household
Chemicals
Poisoning from Industrial
Chemicals
Drug Poisoning
Alcohol Poisoning
Food Poisoning
Miscarriage
Emergency Childbirth
   
 
Wilderness First Aid
   
What to Do if You are a Long Way from Help
Wilderness First Aid
Avalanche and Snow Survival Techniques
Cold Water Survival
Techniques
Stretcher Improvising
Loading and Carrying a
Stretcher
One-and-Two-Person Carries
Helicopter Rescue