First Aid Techniques
   
At the Emergency Scene
Action in An Emergency
Assessing a Casualty
Maintaining Airway,
Breathing, and Circulation
What to do When Somebody has Collapsed
The recovery Position for
Adults
The recovery Position for
Children and Babies
Rescue Breathing for Adults
Rescue Breathing for
Children and Babies
CPR for Adults
CPR for Children and Babies
Choking in Adults
Choking in Children
Choking in Babies
   
 
Everyday First Aid
   
Nosebleeds
Minor Wounds
Infected Wounds
Dealing with Splinters and
Fish Hooks
Foreign Bodies
Animal Bites
Insect Bites and Stings
More on Bites and Stings
Headaches
Fever
Earaches, Toothache, and
Sore Throat
Abdominal Pain
Vomiting and Diarrhea
Cramps
Hysteria, Hiccups, and Panic
Attacks
Allergies
   
 
Equipment, Medicines, and Complementary Medicine
   
Using Dressings and Cold
Compresses
Bandaging
First Aid Kit for the Home
First Aid Kit for the Car
Wilderness First Aid Kit
Observation Chart/Victim
Record
Storing and Using Medication
Commonly Prescribed
Drugs:
What They Do and Side
Effects
Drug Interactions
The Complementary
Medicine Chest
   
 
 
 
 
Eye Wounds and Embedded Objects

Cuts to the eye can be very frightening and even small, difficult to notice injuries are potentially very serious. However, medical treatments mean that even injuries that appear to be very severe may not necessarily result in the loss of sight in the eye. Do not touch the affected eye.

TREATMENT

Prevent further injury and get medical help as soon as possible.

  1. Lie the person down, on his back if possible, and hold the head to prevent movement and keep it stable.
  2. Ask the person to try to keep his eye still to prevent movement of the injured eye. Ask the victim to focus on something to prevent movement.
  3. Ask the victim to hold a clean pad over the eye to help prevent movement and infection. If the wait for an ambulance or other help may take some time, you may wish to hold the pad for the person or to gently bandage it in place. However, because blood loss from the eye area is not likely to be life-threatening, any bandage should be used only to hold the pad in place and not to apply pressure.

Do not attempt to remove any object embedded in the eye. If the object is very long, then gently support it to prevent movement at its base. If small, ensure that the pad you place over the eye does not push it in any further.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF EYE WOUNDS

1. Knowing that something has impacted with the eye—this could be as small as a grain of sand or a splinter

2. Pain in the  eye

  • Loss or limitation of vision
  • Bleeding

TREATING AN OBJECT EMBEDDED IN THE WOUND

The first step in the treatment of any external bleeding is to check the extent of the injury and see if there is anything embedded in the wound.

  1. Apply pressure around the edges of the wound using your hands or the victim’s hands without pressing on the object.

  2. Replace pressure with a dressing or clean material and bandage firmly in place, avoiding pressure on the object.

  3. Raise the injured limb if possible to staunch the flow of blood.
  4. Prevent longer objects from moving by supporting them with your hands or by packing around the base of the object with blankets, for example.

  5. Treat the shock and reassure the victim.

If the victim is impaled on something which cannot be moved, support him or her to stop from pulling on the impaled object and causing further damage. Where possible, treat the victim and ensure that the emergency team is aware of the need for cutting equipment. For further information on impalement see page 80.

WARNING

If there is something stuck into the injury, do not attempt to remove it because:

  • If the object went in at angle, you may cause more damage pulling it out
  • You may leave splinters in the wound
  • The object may be pressing against a vein or an artery, reducing blood loss
  • You may have mistaken a broken bone for a foreign body
The principles of applying pressure, elevating, and treating for shock
 
 
 
Vomiting and Diarrhea

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First Aid Procedures
   
Drowning
Shock
Breathing Difficulties
Asthma
Anaphylactic Shock
Heart Problems
Stroke
Epilepsy
Unconsciousness
Diabetes
Bleeding
Treatment of External Bleeding
Bleeding from the Head or
Palm
Treating Chest or Abdominal
Wounds
Crush Injuries, Impalement,
and Amputation
Internal Bleeding
Eye Wounds and Embedded
Objects
Bleeding from Special Sites
Controlling Bleeding from the Mouth and Nose
Fractures, Discolorations, and
Soft Tissue Injuries
How to Treat Fractures
Fractures of the Skull, Face,
and Jaw
Concussion
Fractures of the Upper Body
Fractures of the Arm and Hand
Fractures of the Ribcage
Recognizing Back and Spinal
Injury
If you have to move the Victim
Unconscious Victim
Injuries to the Lower Body
Injuries to the Lower Leg
Sprains and Strains
Burns and Scalds
Treating Other Types of Burn
Chemical Burns and Eye Burns
Extreme Cold
Extreme Heat
Poisoning
Poisoning from Household
Chemicals
Poisoning from Industrial
Chemicals
Drug Poisoning
Alcohol Poisoning
Food Poisoning
Miscarriage
Emergency Childbirth
   
 
Wilderness First Aid
   
What to Do if You are a Long Way from Help
Wilderness First Aid
Avalanche and Snow Survival Techniques
Cold Water Survival
Techniques
Stretcher Improvising
Loading and Carrying a
Stretcher
One-and-Two-Person Carries
Helicopter Rescue