First Aid Techniques
   
At the Emergency Scene
Action in An Emergency
Assessing a Casualty
Maintaining Airway,
Breathing, and Circulation
What to do When Somebody has Collapsed
The recovery Position for
Adults
The recovery Position for
Children and Babies
Rescue Breathing for Adults
Rescue Breathing for
Children and Babies
CPR for Adults
CPR for Children and Babies
Choking in Adults
Choking in Children
Choking in Babies
   
 
Everyday First Aid
   
Nosebleeds
Minor Wounds
Infected Wounds
Dealing with Splinters and
Fish Hooks
Foreign Bodies
Animal Bites
Insect Bites and Stings
More on Bites and Stings
Headaches
Fever
Earaches, Toothache, and
Sore Throat
Abdominal Pain
Vomiting and Diarrhea
Cramps
Hysteria, Hiccups, and Panic
Attacks
Allergies
   
 
Equipment, Medicines, and Complementary Medicine
   
Using Dressings and Cold
Compresses
Bandaging
First Aid Kit for the Home
First Aid Kit for the Car
Wilderness First Aid Kit
Observation Chart/Victim
Record
Storing and Using Medication
Commonly Prescribed
Drugs:
What They Do and Side
Effects
Drug Interactions
The Complementary
Medicine Chest
   
 
 
 
 
Insect Bites and Stings

Insect bites and stings are painful and there are many insects native to the US that carry potentially fatal venom. Dangerous biting insects include spiders such as the black widow, brown recluse, and some tarantulas; stinging insects include scorpions, wasps, and bees. Children and the elderly are most at risk but even so, stings and insect bites rarely kill unless there is an allergic reaction. Stings in the mouth or throat are also dangerous because the swelling they cause can block the airway. In all cases, avoidance is the best defense.

STINGS AND BITES

A sting is felt as a sudden sharp pain and appears as a raised white patched on a reddened area of skin. A bite is less painful and usually causes mild discomfort and skin inflammation.

POTENTIALLY LIFE-THREATENING RESPONSES TO STINGS AND BITES

Anaphylaxis

This is an allergic reaction to a substance with which the body is ii contact. Bee stings are among the most common cause. Anaphylaxis can develop within seconds and can be fatal.

Multiple stings
While one sting is unlikely to cause problems on a major scale for an otherwise healthy adult, several stings may provoke a dangerous response.

Effects of venom

Some venoms kill the cells around the bite or sting mark, are slow to heal, and leave deep scars. In rare cases they can be fatal. Other venoms affect the nervous system and require an anti-venom medicine or they may be fatal.

STINGS TO MOUTH AND THROAT

Any sting to mouth or throat should be treated with care because subsequent swelling may cause difficulty with breathing.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS ON A LIFE-THREATENING REACTION

  • Difficulty breathing
  • Swollen lips, tongue, and throat
  • Blotchy skin
  • Victim has felt a bite or sting (sometimes this may be described as a scratch)
  • Pain, swelling, and reddening over the site of the bite or sting

Treatment

  1. Monitor and maintain airway and breathing. Be prepared to resuscitate if necessary.

  2. If the victim is a known sufferer of anaphylaxis, he may have an auto-injector that contains life-saving medicine. Help him to find this as quickly as possible and, if necessary, help to administer it.

  3. If the victim is conscious, help into the most comfortable position (this will usually be sitting up).

  4. If the sting was in the mouth, give the victim an ice cube to suck or frequent sips of cold water.

  5. Call 911 and explain what has happened, identifying the insect if possible.

  6. Make an attempt to identify what the victim has been bitten or stung by but do not put yourself at risk.

ORDINARY BITES AND STINGS

Treatment

  1. If you can see the sting, remove it by flicking with the edge of a piece of plastic such as a credit card, or with tweezers. Take care not squeeze the poison sac at the end of the sting.
  2. Wash the affected area to reduce the risk of infection entering the wound.
  3. Apply a cold compress to the site to reduce pain and swelling.
  4. Remove rings, watches, or anything likely to cause a constriction if the area swells.
  5. Advise the victim to see a doctor if pain persists or there are any signs of infection.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

  • Reddening, pain, and swelling over the site of the sting
  • Person has felt a bite or sting
Sting left in the skin (if from a bee)
 
 
 
Abdominal Pain

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First Aid Procedures
   
Drowning
Shock
Breathing Difficulties
Asthma
Anaphylactic Shock
Heart Problems
Stroke
Epilepsy
Unconsciousness
Diabetes
Bleeding
Treatment of External Bleeding
Bleeding from the Head or
Palm
Treating Chest or Abdominal
Wounds
Crush Injuries, Impalement,
and Amputation
Internal Bleeding
Eye Wounds and Embedded
Objects
Bleeding from Special Sites
Controlling Bleeding from the Mouth and Nose
Fractures, Discolorations, and
Soft Tissue Injuries
How to Treat Fractures
Fractures of the Skull, Face,
and Jaw
Concussion
Fractures of the Upper Body
Fractures of the Arm and Hand
Fractures of the Ribcage
Recognizing Back and Spinal
Injury
If you have to move the Victim
Unconscious Victim
Injuries to the Lower Body
Injuries to the Lower Leg
Sprains and Strains
Burns and Scalds
Treating Other Types of Burn
Chemical Burns and Eye Burns
Extreme Cold
Extreme Heat
Poisoning
Poisoning from Household
Chemicals
Poisoning from Industrial
Chemicals
Drug Poisoning
Alcohol Poisoning
Food Poisoning
Miscarriage
Emergency Childbirth
   
 
Wilderness First Aid
   
What to Do if You are a Long Way from Help
Wilderness First Aid
Avalanche and Snow Survival Techniques
Cold Water Survival
Techniques
Stretcher Improvising
Loading and Carrying a
Stretcher
One-and-Two-Person Carries
Helicopter Rescue